Do you have kidney problem?

One should be alert to this possibility if there is:

  1. Red urine

    It can be caused by hematuria (RBC in urine) or myoglobinuria or more commonly ingested colorant or food or drug. Confirmation of hematuria is by microscopic examination demonstrating the presence of RBC in the urine. When blood clot is present, it means severe degree of hematuria.

  2. Turbid urine

    Urine is usually clear. Turbidity is usually due to presence of white blood cells in the urine in the case of urinary tract infection. Smoky urine occurs in cases of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis due to presence of different types of cells in the urine.

  3. Frothy urine

    Urine stream can lead to formation of some froth which usually disappears in seconds. Persistence of froth signifies the presence of protein in the urine.

  4. Stones or sand

    If stones or sands passed in the urine, pick it up for future evaluation.

  5. Polyuria

    Polyuria means passing large amount of urine. It is common in diabetes mellitus due to osmotic diuresis secondary to hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose in the blood) and its attendant glycosuria (glucose in the urine). Kidney diseases as in chronic renal failure, low blood potassium level, high blood calcium level, renal tubular dysfunction as in diabetes insipidus (decreased water reabsorption in the renal tubules resulting in polyuria).

  6. Decrease in urine output

    It occurs as a compensatory mechanism of the body to conserve water in cases of inadequate fluid intake (too busy to drink, no fluid in hot weather) or excessive fluid loss (vomiting or diarrhoea). In these situations, one becomes thirsty and may appear dehydrated. In renal failure with decrease in urine output, there will be water retention and one will appear edematous (swollen) due to water retention.

  7. Abnormal urine stream

    Usually urine is passed fluently and without pain at 2-4 hours interval. When there is obstruction in the bladder or urethra, urine stream may appear interrupted. Painful micturition is abnormal. Frequent micturition can be due to excessive fluid intake, of psychological in origin and can be secondary to small bladder volume as in substance abuse with ketamine or others. Unstable bladder muscle contraction can results in urgency and / or frequency, and may also lead to incontinence. Sometimes, it is related to constipation.

  8. Loin pain

    Pain at the loin area (mid-back, lateral to the muscle column) may means urinary infection or stone or other causes.

The above features may alert to the possibility of kidney problem though they are not exhaustive. One should consult doctor if one is suspicious of having renal problem.